3D cell culture
In vivo, the cells are in a 3-dimensional environment in which interactions occur between the cells and between the cell and the extracellular matrix. This allows the transport of nutrients and cells.
In vitro Cell culture is traditionally 2-dimensional or 2D (also called mono-layer culture). This type of culture, although easy to perform, has the disadvantage of not reproducing the in vivo living conditions of the cells. Cells grown in 2 dimensions therefore have a different morphology and more generally a different phenotype of the same cells in vivo.
The 3-dimensional cell culture (3D culture) recreates the micro-environment conditions encountered in the body. The goal of 3D culture is to provide cells with an environment to form structures called spheroids in which cells can interact with each other. There are many different media for 3D culture including sponges (based on polymers or proteins of the extracellular matrix), gels (synthetic or natural) or plastic supports (inserts or film with a micro-structure).