Histopathology refers to the medical specialty dedicated to the study of biological tissues to establish a diagnosis. It is based on tissue samples, tissue biopsies or smears depending on the technique used to collect the sample.
Histopathology brings together several techniques:
- Histology techniques that involve coloring the sample with routine stainings such as hematoxylin / eosin to see tissue structure or more specific stains to characterize specific structures
- Histochemistry, which combines various techniques using chemical reactions between chemicals and biological components of tissues. For example, a common histochemical technique is the use of Prussian blue (Perl staining) which, for example, highlights deposits in diseases such as hemochromatosis.
- Immunohistochemistry (IHC) which involves specific antibodies of a given target (proteins, lipids or carbohydrates). This target is usually a known marker for a given pathology.