An antibody is a glycoprotein or immunoglobulin that binds to an antigen (or part of the antigen called an epitope), this combination makes it possible to induce an immunological reaction against an external agent. An antibody is composed of constant and variable domains. The variable domains constitute the site of binding to the antigen or paratope.
Antibodies are an important tool for the study and detection of many mechanisms and pathologies.
Antibodies are produced naturally by organisms during an immune reaction but antibodies can be produced for use in research or diagnosis. They are then separated into two groups: primary and secondary antibodies. Primary antibodies recognize a specific protein or biomolecule of interest. These primary antibodies are monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies produced in different species such as mice, rats, rabbits ... Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies have their own advantages and disadvantages that must be considered before choosing a primary antibody.